Monday, May 25, 2020

The New Deal s Impact On American History - 949 Words

â€Å"Federalism, Capitalism, Pragmatism†. The New Deal’s impact on our American economy.The great depression of 1933-1938 our president FDR as he was called, known as Teddy to others, instrumented a plan of action shortly after his election changing the course of history forever and leaving a lasting impression forever imprinted on the hearts of the American people.The era of the great depression. When the stock market crash it disabled ordinary everyday life for a majority of the working middle class. Thousands of families were forced into poverty, grief-stricken and unemployed business owners, flat broke turned to their government for assistance. Immediate plans of action had to occur thus changing the way we look at our constitution, and the supreme court forever. Definition of American Politics? Conflicts between one nation under god and elected states, and society itself. Turning my attention from the legacy of political action and our constitutional some key focal points that have led up to change and reform b etween the federal government and state lawmakers. A landmark in American History or was it? If you ask me there’re so many events that helped to form our original constructive foundations of liberty, A set of boundaries in question McCulloch vs. Maryland was the year 1819. The questioning of Congressional power expressed in a simple question of, do we run a functional government and if so just how far are our nation s limits stretched In comparison to measuresShow MoreRelatedImpact Of The New Deal On The Great Depression1355 Words   |  6 Pages Impact of the New Deal on the Great Depression Preceding the Great Depression, the United States went through a glorious age of prosperity, with a booming market, social changes, and urbanization; America was changing. At the end of the 1920’s and well through the 1930’s, America was faced with its greatest challenge yet; the 1929 stock market crash. It would be the end of the prosperity of the â€Å"Roaring Twenties†. Now the American government and its citizens were faced with a failing economyRead MoreFranklin D. Roosevelt s President Of The United States1221 Words   |  5 Pagesthe most challenging presidencies in the history of the United States. Throughout his presidency, he faced extremely hard tasks and while facing them he had promised the people prompt, vigorous action, and he was assertive with his Inaugural Address. In 1929, the longest economic downturn in American history hit, known as the Great Depression. In 1933, when the economy was at its bleakest, FDR took office and during his Inaugura l Address, promised the American people that he would take swift actionRead MoreThe events of the 1930’s, or the Great Depression, did the most to influence contemporary America.900 Words   |  4 Pagesthe 1930’s, or the Great Depression, did the most to influence contemporary America. During the twenties, America was at its most prosperous economic times until the stock market crashed in 1929. The stock market crash led to a dramatic decline of the U.S. economy. The decline in the economy changed Americans everyday lives. In 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president and he created the New Deal to provide relief, recovery and reform. The Depression impacted America in the 1930’s in everyRead MoreHarry S. Truman: A Tremendously Influential President Essay1696 Words   |  7 PagesHarry S. Truman was born in Lamar, Missouri on May 8, 1884 and was at first just an average boy and then man, with dreams in the music field and interests in reading and hist ory. His mother greatly supported his ideas and desires and wished him the best. Truman worked a series of clerical jobs and worked on the Santa Fe Railroad as well (â€Å"Harry S. Truman†). Truman’s first encounter with politics was when he served in WWI and was a captain in the Field Artillery in France. When he returned from FranceRead MoreThe Great Depression And The New Deal1177 Words   |  5 Pages Throughout this paper I will be discussing how women, blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans, were impacted by the Depression and the New Deal. I will also be discussing the long-term legacies of the New Deal and the major historical assessments that have been made of the New Deal. I will also be giving my thoughts and views on the assessments that have been made of the New Deal. The New Deal and Minorities The Great Depression was caused by the stock market crash in 1929. ThisRead MoreThe Constitutional Right Of Liberty Of Contract, By Franklin D. Roosevelt And His New Deal1494 Words   |  6 Pagesthe other side of things are the beliefs of the Democrats, their views in favor equal opportunity for the working class. Through time Liberal President, Franklin D. Roosevelt and his â€Å"New Deal† as well as Conservative Republican Ronald Regan and his â€Å"Trickle Down Economics†, have both made the biggest economic impacts regarding the debate. The constitutional right of liberty of contract, mandated by the Supreme Court in the early 20th century, is allowing government to be involved with businessesRead MoreThe Black Renaissance And The Great Depression971 Words   |  4 PagesThroughout history African Americans have not had it easy. Blacks in America have had a long struggle to gain equality and freedom, which still exists to this day. The years 1917 to 1945 were particularly tough for African Americans. Racial discrimination was at a high and segregation laws enforced the idea that blacks were inferior to the whites. African Americans desired to escape the unfair treatment and obtain equal rights, but found themselves stuck. The two World Wars drew African Americans NorthRead MoreReview Of Alan Brinkley s The Unfinished Nation1638 Words   |  7 Pagesprograms presented in the first New Deal? will focus between the years 1933 to 1935, as the nation, with FDR s guidance, slowly attempted to dig its way out of the Depr ession. Analysis will be made regarding the purpose of the programs and what they lacked in gaining success. Though some of his first few domestic programs garnered success, Roosevelt’s first New Deal had not fully provided the country with the solace it needed. The first source evaluated was Alan Brinkley s The Unfinished Nation, publishedRead MoreImpact Of The New Deal And Programs On The Great Depression1274 Words   |  6 Pages Impact of the New Deal and programs on the Great Depression Preceding the Great Depression, the United States went through a glorious age of prosperity, with a booming market, social changes,and urbanization..America was changing. At the end of the 1920’s well through the 1930’s, America was faced with it’s greatest challenge yet. The 1929 stock market crash was the end to the prosperity of the â€Å"Roaring Twenties†. Now the people and government were faced with a huge problem,a failing economy. PresidentRead MoreEleanor Roosevelt : Long Range Goal1005 Words   |  5 PagesIsra El-khateeb Long-Range Goal: To inform listeners about the legacy and inspirational status Eleanor Roosevelt left behind. Immediate Purpose: To entertain and inspire my audience by honoring the roles Eleanor Roosevelt played and describing the impact she has on our daily life. INTRODUCTION I. Arouse Audience Interest in the Topic A. It is difficult in a sense to capture the greatness of Eleanor’s life in simple terms through her background, but we will surely uncover her legacy and her greatest

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Location and Function of the Pons in the Human Brain

In Latin, the word pons literally means bridge. The pons is a portion of the hindbrain that connects the cerebral cortex with the medulla oblongata. It also serves as a communications and coordination center between the two hemispheres of the brain. As a part of the brainstem, the pons helps in the transferring of nervous system messages between various parts of the brain and the spinal cord. Function The pons is involved in several functions of the body including: ArousalAutonomic function: breathing regulationRelaying sensory information between the cerebrum and cerebellumSleep Several cranial nerves originate in the pons. The largest cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve aids in facial sensation and chewing. The abducens nerve assists in eye movement. The facial nerve enables facial movement and expressions. It also aids in our sense of taste and swallowing. The vestibulocochlear nerve aids in hearing and helps us maintain our equilibrium. The pons  helps to regulate the respiratory system by assisting the medulla oblongata in controlling breathing rate. The pons is also involved in the control of sleep cycles and the regulation of deep sleep. The pons activates inhibitory centers in the medulla in order to inhibit movement during sleep. Another primary function of the pons is to connect the forebrain with the hindbrain. It connects the cerebrum to the cerebellum through the cerebral peduncle. The cerebral peduncle is the anterior portion of the midbrain that consists of large nerve tracts. The pons relays sensory information between the cerebrum and cerebellum. Functions under the control of the cerebellum include  fine motor coordination and control, balance, equilibrium, muscle tone, fine motor coordination, and a sense of body position. Location Directionally, the pons is superior to the medulla oblongata and inferior to the midbrain. Sagittally, it is anterior to the cerebellum and posterior to the pituitary gland. The fourth ventricle runs posteriorly to the pons and medulla in the brainstem. Pons Injury Damage to the pons can result in serious problems as this brain area is important for connecting areas of the brain that control autonomic functions and movement. Injury to the pons may result in sleep disturbances, sensory problems, arousal dysfunction and coma. Locked-in syndrome is a condition resulting from damage to nerve pathways in the pons that connect the cerebrum, spinal cord, and cerebellum. The damage disrupts voluntary muscle control leading to quadriplegia and the inability to speak. Individuals with locked-in syndrome are consciously aware of what is going on around them but are unable to move any parts of their bodies except for their eyes and eyelids. They communicate by blinking or moving their eyes. Locked-in syndrome is most commonly caused by decreased blood flow to the pons or bleeding in the pons. These symptoms are often the result of blood clot or stroke. Damage to the myelin sheath of nerve cells in the pons results in a condition called central pontine myelinolysis. The myelin sheath is an insulating layer of lipids and proteins that help neurons conduct nerve impulses more efficiently. Central pontine myelinolysis can result in difficulty swallowing and speaking, as well as paralysis. A blockage of the arteries that supply blood to the pons can cause a type of stroke known as lacunar stroke. This type of stroke occurs deep within the brain and typically only involves a small portion of the brain.  Individuals suffering from a lacunar stroke may experience numbness, paralysis, loss of memory,  difficulty in speaking or walking, coma, or death. Divisions of the Brain Forebrain: encompasses the cerebral cortex and brain lobes.Midbrain: connects the forebrain to the hindbrain.Hindbrain: regulates autonomic functions and coordinates movement.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Cardiovascular Disease ( Cvd ) - 9447 Words

Background and Literature Review Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) The phrase cardiovascular disease encompasses all ailments involving the conditions of the heart as well as those of the blood vessels. The major types of CVD prevalent in Australia are coronary heart disease and stroke, together with heart failure/cardiomyopathy. One of the leading causes of mortality in Australia today is cardiovascular disease (CVD) with one in every six Australians affected by the disease resulting in more than 3.7 million people listed as sufferers. The prevalence of contracting CVD increases with age as demonstrated by 35% of Australians whose ages range from 55 to 64 years reported to have a long term CVD condition. The incidence increases to 62% for†¦show more content†¦There are also other important risk factors involved with men experiencing higher rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) than women. The risk of contracting CVD is increased in men whose first degree blood relative has suffered incidence of CVD before the age of 55 years and the same prevails in women whose first degree blood relative has suffered CVD before the age of 65 years. In addition, some ethnic groups exhibit higher rates of CVD than others [5]. There is a tendency for modifiable risk factors to have a noticeable result on CVD prevalence in the community. The relative impact of the disease and injury on the population in Australia 2003, defined 12 risk elements linked to CVD which if brought together would provide answers to 69% of these relative impacts [6]. High blood pressure and high cholesterol ranked highest as the largest contributor. Other contributors come in the nature of lack of physical activities, high body mass, use of tobacco products, and low consumption of fruits and vegetables [4]. The modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease are summarised as below: Table1 – Modifiable Risk Factors for CVD[4] Behavioural factors Biomedical factors Tobacco smoking High blood pressure insufficient physical activity High blood cholesterol Dietary behaviour Overweight and obesity Excessive alcohol consumption depression Blood Pressure

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Significance of the Service Encounter †

Question: Discuss about theSignificance of the Service Encounter. Answer: Introduction: Child Fund Australia is an independent, non-profit, non-religious service organisation which works on international ground to lessen poverty among children. This organisation mainly works in developing countries. As children are part of community, so community help is very important to respond all the viable issues(Childfund, 2015). Long term community build up to ensure childs right in every corner of the world that a child feel safe, educated, can build a nation and must have a future. The condition of most third world country like Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia and all African countries are really horrific. They forced to live without basic rights and basic needs. Child Fund Australia thus chooses to work on these places(Childfund, 2016). They have managed funds through sponsorship, with donations and obviously government aids. It has a huge network present in several countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America which help more than 14 million children belong to 63 countries. It is a charitable organisation with full accreditation of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Back Stage ( Refer Back Stage flow chart) Any organisation needs money to perform its work. But service organisation works differently as it doesnt have any business to run for profit mechanisation. So fund raising is the vital issue to make it effective. It has also business opportunity but not like other sector. It connects with more people having interest in this field in relevant country. As this organisation works for betterment of children, so business related to these attracts several business with their friends and families also(Justgiving, 2017). An individual as well as any company can help Child Fund by Holding company fundraisers, providing matched donations from different fields, Running consumer promotions of several useful products and Offering payroll. Many big and small business firms directly support Child Fund and verbal about supporting and pray for support for children whereas some firms prefer to choose anonymity. All who support Child Fund through various programs like Child Sponsorship, Project Humanity and Global Humanity are registered as Business Supporter. After registering, they receive a registration pack for Child Fund Business Supporter including an annual logo with date stamped to use for website, pre-approved text using website to communicate with staff and clients, getting ideas and tips(Childfund, 2009). Any charity organisation works on team and to build a team, is needed a good manager. Fundraising is the most crucial part for this type of service organisation. And fundraising depends on team. Manager has to set a goal to achieve from everyone with cumulative for a team. To build a team, it needs to act like a family to make a bond among them. A team can wok whole heartedly when it works with energy and fun. If everyone is involved in their own way, achievement of target becomes very easy. Child Fund has some innovative ideas which come from different people after years of experiment in different socio economic condition. New people should explore with tips and ideas to enhance their skill. Fundraises are big and interesting job with manipulative and communicative skill. Collecting donation is next vital job here. Every employee is asked to make donation from possible Human Resources. Employees need to know the importance of collecting donation and then should set a goal to make people contribute. Child poverty is such a huge task that needs a huge monetary help with regular interval. This is actually an emergency like situation even in many countries and employees of any service organisation like Child Fund make sere about it(Probonoaustralia, 2016). Consumer promotion is another way to manage funds. Most of the consumers support good causes which are run for changing society. Then they can pay for that also. Promotional headlines to be advertised in newspaper, magazine or website is a great idea to connect with larger people. People want to involve in such things from bigger cause and love to write feedback. Significance of Managerial Implications: Front stage ( Refer Front Stage Flow Chart) Child fund is a service organisation which works to reduce poverty among children. It believes in child right not to live in misery condition. So the programs are associated with real, effective and easily implicating in nature. It acts with building assets, strengthening protection, amplifying the voice of children, enabling people to claim their rights. This works among human resources and as it is spread worldwide, so a huge human resources to need to establish a good chain. Long term assets mean to establish education, healthcare, food security, livelihoods and water and sanitation are needed huge employees. To manage all employees, to make everything effective and accurate, managers are to be there to manage all the odds associated with in different societies. So managers are needed to come from various societies preferably from locals where it is operated. Children are prone to various vulnerable activities. They have been worst sufferers in case of disasters strike. Only a goo d person with enormous managerial skill can cope up the situation to help children to come out from that situation. They need to be patient to hear, understanding, have convincing power and should have ability to adjust with them in any bad scenario. Relief is not just a handful of food rather relief is helping to get out of trauma and to back to normal life. This sensitivity needs with managerial quality in service organisation to be working fruitfully. They need to encourage the needy children to be vocal about their rights, their problems, their insecurities and their fears. Generally children living in poverty have no idea about basic needs and rights. So they need to be their agents while claiming rights for children. Some countries are in very poor condition and their children are just waiting to die. Employees need to raise their voice internationally to protest, protect the children and to do this they need huge monetary aids. They must have that capability to raise funds an d utilise effectively(Childfund, 2016). In any service organisation, first challenge is to raise funds and next challenge is to use that fund in proper way. Its a long and tough task which needs innovation, implementation, coordination, communication and dedication. To work with poor children one more thing is necessary i.e. sensitivity. Insensitive people cant work with these children. Some recent rehabilitation works going in Myanmar, Vietnam, Laos, Somalia, and Ethiopia are one of best through world. They are helped to get back with various activities like children club, children sports, school education, and community help. The people work for these children should have knowledge to manage in urban and rural field as both problems are totally different. Non-profit organisations are very important who are working to reduce poverty are needed god employees with very god managerial skills to implement all ideas effectively. References: Childfund, 2009. APAC- End-term qualitative evaluation report. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 14 August 2017]. Childfund, 2015. Child fund Australia. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 14 August 2017]. Childfund, 2016. About child fund australia. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 14 August 2017]. Childfund, 2016. Child Fund working. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 14 August 2017]. Justgiving, 2017. Join the ChildFund Australia community. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 14 August 2017]. Probonoaustralia, 2016. Child Fund Australia. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 14 August 2017].

Tuesday, April 7, 2020

Asian Crisis Essays (743 words) - Economy, Stock Market Crashes

Asian Crisis A large economic downturn in East Asia threatens to end its nearly 30-year run of high growth rates. The crisis has caused Asian currencies to fall 50-60%, stock markets to decline 40%, banks to close, and property values to drop. The crisis was brought on by currency devaluations, bad banking practices high foreign debt, loose government regulation, and corruption. Due to East Asia's large impact on the world economy, the panic in Thailand, Indonesia, Korea, and other Asian countries has prompted other Countries to worry about the affect on their own economies and offer aid to the financially troubled nations (The Great Wave). The East Asian crisis has affected almost all of the Asian Nations, but the three hardest hit countries are Thailand, Indonesia, and South Korea. The panic began in Thailand in May of 1997 when speculators, worried about Thailand's slowing economy, excessive debt, and political instability devalued the Baht (Thailand currency) as they fled for market-driven currencies like the American dollar. Indonesia's economy soon fell soon after when the rupiah hit a record low against the U.S. dollar. Indonesia is plagued by more than $70 billion worth of bad debts and a corrupt and inefficient government. Thailand and Indonesia also suffer from being overbuilt during real estate booms that they were the result of huge influxes of cash by optimistic foreign investors. South Korea faltered under the weight of its huge foreign debt, decreasing exports, and weakening currency (Asian Fall). Other major countries touched by the crisis are Japan, China, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Japan's economy is burdened by $300 billion in bad bank loans and a recession. Chinese banks may carry bad bank loans of up to $1 trillion. The banks lend 66% of China's investment capital to state-run industries that only produce 12% of China's industrial output. Malaysia and the Philippines are both faced with devalued currencies and lowered stock markets (Asian Fall). The implications of the Asian financial crisis are many. A declining Asian economy will reduce demand for U.S. and other countries' exports. The devalued currencies of East Asia will make Asian imports seen cheap and will lead to increased American imports, thus increasing our trade deficit (Asian Fall). A worldwide banking emergency could result if the embattled Asian economies failed to pay back their loans to the U.S. and other countries (Nuffield Case study). If the Asian economies fall further, in a desire to raise cash, they might sell the hundreds of billion dollars of U.S. treasuries they now own, leading to higher interest rates and an American recession (The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich). An article in the Economist reported that the Asian economic turmoil and the layoffs that may result, could instigate increased discontent and possibly give rise to violent strikes, riots, and greater political instability (Economist). Since the financial tumult causes instability in the world market, several solutions have been proposed designed to restore the health of the Asian economy. The International Monetary Fund is offering $60 billion in aid packages to Thailand, Indonesia, and South Korea (The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich). The aid will be used for converting short-term debt to long-term debt and to keep currencies from falling lower in the world market (Nuffield Business and Economics). Lower currency values make repaying loans to other nations more difficult (The Great Wave) The aid packages are tied to measures that will ensure that the Recipient countries reform their economies. Some of the measures the nations must follow are increasing taxes to decrease budget deficits, ending corruption, increasing banking regulation, improving accounting information so investors can make better decisions, closing insolvent banks, selling off inefficient state enterprises, and increasing interest rates to slow growth and encourage stability (The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich). Hopefully these market reforms will allow East Asia to improve its Economic outlook. Since most of the Asian nations have balanced budgets, low inflation, cheap labour, pro-business governments, and high savings rates, the long-term outlook for these countries is very good. The financial crisis, instead of destroying the Asian tigers, will merely serve as a much-needed lesson in debt management, orderly growth, competent accounting practices, and efficient government. Considering the size of Asia's contribution to the world economy, a rapid recovery will be greatly anticipated. Bibliography William L. Shirer, ?The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich', pages. 58-61. David Hackett Fischer, ?The Great Wave', pages 192-193. Erik Achorn, ?European Civilization and Politics since 1815', (London: 1935), pages. 561 - 562. David Johnson, ?Asian Fall', pages. 343-442. Economist, articles 5,6 and

Monday, March 9, 2020

What are the major threats to democracy in a modern society Essays

What are the major threats to democracy in a modern society Essays What are the major threats to democracy in a modern society Paper What are the major threats to democracy in a modern society Paper There are many threats to democracy in modern societies; these threats however, differ depending on the type of democracy implemented and the nature of the society, for example; the democracies of the developing world are confronted with different threats when compared to the threats faced by the democracies of the developed world. This paper will seek to provide an examination of the main adversities to democracies mainly in the developing world. To gain a general idea, it is necessary to look at the conditions conducive for democratization so that we can fully comprehend the many obstacles that modern societies are faced with. Democracy is not a natural order; this is stated by Pinkney in 1993. Throughout history most rulers were instilled without the consent of the citizens, such rulers were born into a monarchy or they were voted in by ruling elites. The factors that allowed for the establishment and maintenance of democracy in the west were different to those needed by the developing world; there are a few exceptions however. The west had already formulated a very stable economic and social structure, which are essential conditions for the development and advancement of long-term democracies. Based on this it is evident that in order for the world to flourish under a democratic type system there are several crucial requirements that are required to be met. One of the main perquisites that are conducive to the formation of a democratic state is the constant need for continual economic development; therefore it is evident that a lack of economic development in a particular country will pose a major threat to the prevalence and advancement of democratic ideologies in that country. Economic development is an idea supported by Lipset (1959). Economic development is considered one of the main necessities needed to guide a state into democracy. Lipset believes that the correlation between the existence of democracy and such variables as per capita wealth, industrialization, urbanization and the level of education, are causes of democracy. This underlines and demonstrates the insurmountable obstacles faced by many parts of the world, most notably the developing world in terms of maintaining and encouraging democratic influences. Poverty and unemployment are rife throughout the developing world and therefore the ever-rising unemployment levels coupled with exponential population growth is crippling the economies of many nations which is rendering these nations susceptible to adhering to the conditions necessary for the instilment of other forms of political governance which obviously, poses a threat to existing and potential democratic prevalence and advancement throughout modern society. Social structure is another factor that is hindering democratic advancement and instilment amongst modern day societies; this is particularly a problem throughout the developing world and most notably Africa. The predominant issue with this idea in terms of the developing world is that many developing nations after decolonization were left socially and religiously divided. This is just one of the many burdens left behind by the colonizers that has rendered the many societies and tribes of Africa liable to the prevalence of unfair and unjust rule as well as racial and other forms of discriminatory action which has left many ethnic minorities having the arduous task of attempting to rule and unite conflicting tribal, cultural and religious groups. For example, within each state of Africa it is possible to see a number of tribes or mixtures of Christianity and Islam, where they were all put together to live as one by colonial powers. This has left many ethnic minorities thus making the job of ruling fairly, extremely difficult. Democracy is more likely to come about from a society where, for example, the monarchy checks the nobility and the aristocracy goes into commerce. (Pinkney, 1993). We can see this in states that have conventionally had monarchs or upper class forced hierarchy ruling, such rulers are more prone to alter the political requirements of a democracy once the totalitarian regime has been lifted. From the arguments gathered above, it is easy to see the most prominent threats to democracy that are currently facing modern societies. The necessities needed to attain democratic rule portray how far some states are from acquiring and implementing a democratic status. It is evident that economic development is the main threat that is preventing many nations from adhering to the criteria necessary to implement and obtain democratic systems. The other factor that is hindering the advancement of democratic systems is the complex social structure of many developing nations due to the effects of colonization. The divisions and creation of isolated ethnic minorities caused by the colonization and decolonisation processes has made it extremely difficult for democracy to achieve fair and equal ruling that would be so beneficial for the many social groups within a society.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Money and Banking Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Money and Banking - Assignment Example The flow of money is not constrained by physical proximity, money flows around the globe through banking institutions and financial markets. This seemingly free flow of money is constrained, however, by rules under which banks and financial markets must operate, as dictated by government policy. This essay will examine different concepts which affect money and banking. I. If the central bank has an interest rate target, why would an increase in the demand for bank reserves lead to a rise in the money supply? If the central bank has an interest rate target an increase in the demand for bank reserves will lead to increase in the money supply since the increase in the demand for reserves shifts the reserves demand curve to the right which in turn would increase the interest rates. In order to prevent this, the central will buy bonds to increase the supply of reserves. The open market purchase will then cause the monetary base and the money supply to expand (Bishop 2012). II. The benefits of central bank lending to banks (rediscount operations) to prevent bank panics are obvious. What are the costs? The benefits of the central bank lending money to banks include helping them to maintain at least a fixed ratio of reserves relative to their to their transaction deposits, they help stabilize the total willingness to hold reserves in the overnight inter-bank loan market. A stable demand of reserves in the overnight inter-bank loan market helps to stabilize the overnight inter-bank loan interest rate, given a quantity of reserves supplied by the central bank. Central banks may lend emergence reserves and other funds when banks have liquidity problems or other financial problems such as shortage of capital. But like deposit insurance, the lending increases moral hazard if the central bank guarantees that all institutions can have access to discount loans, even institutions that are poorly managed. Part of the cost of poor management of